A Conceptual Model for Personalizing an Automated Teller Machine

This article introduces a new conceptual model for automated teller machines called the personal bank teller. The disadvantage of the conceptual model users have of current automated teller machines is of an inflexible mechanical replacement for a bank teller. The personal bank teller aims to personalize automated teller machines by controlling the options that are offered and the order in which they are displayed, and by insulating the user from the differences between domestic and international automated teller machines. Design considerations for an implementation of personal bank tellers are discussed.

A Relational Storage Mechanism for Implementing Flexible Input Controls

Users sometimes need to enter invalid values or values they are not sure of. Flexible input controls allow invalid data values to be entered, they enable values that the user is not sure of to be marked as such, and enable the user to make explanatory annotations. This article describes a storage technique for relational databases that bridges the gap between the invalid and uncertain values used by flexible input controls and the strict data integrity and validation rules required by relational databases.

Flexible Input Controls for Humane User Interfaces

Graphical user interfaces provide input controls that constrain input values to meet database integrity and validation rules. Sometimes, however, users need to enter data temporarily that is known to be invalid or not completely accurate. Current software is inflexible because it prevents invalid and uncertain values to be entered temporarily. This article describes flexible input controls, a new idiom that enables user interfaces to be more humane by acknowledging that users need to use invalid and uncertain values. Flexible input controls allow users to enter invalid values, to mark uncertain values, and to attach explanatory annotations to such values.

Reducing Internet Traffic by Packaging Multiple HTTP Requests

Downloading a web page can produce many HTTP requests. An HTTP request is made for the HTML of the web page itself and a subsequent request is made for each image, audio clip, and other multimedia content referenced in the HTML. This article describes a method of packaging multiple HTTP requests into a single request to reduce Internet traffic. The trade-off is that web servers that service multiple HTTP request packages must package the requested content before delivery to web browsers which must then unpack the content.

Maintaining Document Mental Models by Reorganizing Document Files

In The Myth of the Paperless Office, Abigail Sellen and Richard Harper explore why paper use is increasing despite the predictions of its demise at the hands of the electronic office. One key advantage of paper documents over electronic documents is the way paper documents enable us to deal with corrupted or missing pages.

Enhancing Browsers with Web Page Levels of Detail

Web pages can be viewed at different levels of detail depending on how much information is required. This article describes six levels of detail and explains how they can be used to implement three browser enhancements: enhanced link tool tips, navigation maps, and pre-emptive page downloading.

Reducing Perceived Download Time with Web Page Pre-Emption

Users often experience a delay between clicking on a link to request a web page and the presentation of the page in the browser. This article describes web page pre-emption, a browser-based method of decreasing the download delays perceived by users, and presents five strategies for selecting which pages to pre-emptively download.